Rishis, History & Stories Part I


  Compiled by Sri R. Gopalakrishnan, (Retired AGM, BSNL) Tambaram, Chennai.


There are 49 established Lead Hindu Gothras (or Gothram). All members of a particular Gothra are believed to possess certain common characteristics by way of nature or profession.

The term Gothra was used in its present sense for the first time in the Brahmanas. It was systematised by about the 4th century BC to accommodate changed social rules and laws and by the time of the Sutras, it was a well-established system.

Gothras have their orgination to saptharshies who change with Manvanthara. We are in the seventh Manvanthara now.

Many of the seven sages have been repeated and replaced. In the first manvanthara the saptharshies were Marichi, Atri, Angeerasa, Pulasthia,Pulaha Kratu  and Vasishta. They are believed to be the mind-born sons of Brahma.

According to the Baudhâyanas’rauta-sûtra Vishvâmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages; the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be Gothras. We have discussed the Gothra Sages earlier in the Part 1 in sections I to IVIn the following part II, the discussion is about section V to VIII as listed below:


Section  V) 1. Kasyapa gothra 2. Vamadeva gothra 3. Pulasthia Gothra 4. Pulaha gothra 5. Angirasa gothra & 6. Atreya  Gothra

Section VI) 1. Kutsa gothram 2. Shounaka gothram 3. Parasara gothram

Section VII) 1. Srivatsa Gothra 2. Vatsa Gothram 3. Kausika Gothram 4. Shadamarshna Gotra & Naithrupa Kasyapa Gothram

Section VIII) 1. Lohita Gothra, 2. Kapila Gotra, 3. Dathaathreya gothra, 4. Galava gothra, 5. Mathanga Gothra, 6. Surya Datta gothra, 7. Mithrasu Gothra, 8. Kausala gothram, 9. Charora Gotra, 10. Dhalabya gothra & 11. Vishnu Gothra.

Section V

1. Kasyapa gothra 2. Vamadeva gothra 3. Pulasthia Gothra 4. Pulaha gothra 5. Angirasa gothra 6. Sadarmashna & 7. Athreya  Gothra


Kasyapa gothra is a very very familiar Gothra. Not much known details are detailed while known details are just mentioned. 

Kashyapa a  Vedic sage to whom some hymns of Rigveda are attributed. All authorities agree in assigning to him a large part in the work of creation. 

Kashyapa was the son of Mareechi. Daksha Prajapati married his thirteen daughters with sage Kashyapa. The names of those daughters were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhika, Krodha, Pradha, Vishwa, Vinata, Kapila, Manu and Kadru. 

All these women gave birth to so many children that the whole creation was filled up with their progenies and off springs. 

Aditi was the mother of all the Devatas and the twelve Aaditya (suns). Diti gave birth to the ‘Daitya’ (demons), Danu was the mother of the ‘Danavas’ (demons), ‘Kala’ and ‘Danayu’ also gave birth to the Danavas (demons) ‘Sinhika’ gave birth to lions and tigers, ‘Krodha’ was the mother of the demons who had great anger, ‘Vinata’ gave birth to ‘Garuda’, ‘Arun’ etc. Kadru was the mother of snakes and cobras and ‘Manu’ was the mother of all human beings. Hence, it becomes quite clear that all the species which exist in this world originate from the same ancestor and hence all of us are like brothers and sisters. We are the offspring of Maharshi Kashyapa and so are the trees, the animals, the birds etc. 

Out of these 13 women, Aditi was the senior most loving wife of the sage Kashyapa. She was the mother of all the deities including ‘Indra’. Even Lord Vishnu incarnated as Vamana in this family. 

According to the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas, he was the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma, and he was father of Vivaswat, the father of Manu, the progenitor of mankind, the above is confirmed. 

The Satapatha Brahmana gives a different and not very intelligible account of his origin thus:–– “Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot); hence the word koorma (tortoise). 

Kasyapa means tortoise; hence men say, ‘All creatures are descendants of Kasyapa.’ This tortoise is the same as Aditya.” 

The Atharva veda says, “The self-born Kasyapa sprang from Time,” and Time is often identical with Sri Maha Vishnu. 

The Mahabharata and later authorities agree in representing that Kasyapa married Aditi and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Upon Aditi he begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Vivaswat, and “to Vivaswat was born the wise and mighty Manu.” 

By his other twelve wives, he had a numerous and very diversified offspring: demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is sometimes called Prajapati. 

He is one of the seven great Rishis, and he appears as the priest of Parasurama and Ramachandra. 

So  marrying the daughters of Daksha sage Kashyapa happen to be the co- brother of Lord Siva who married Sati another daughter of Daksha, and also of moon god who married 27 daughters of Daksha from Aswathi  to Revathi. 

2. Vamadeva Gothra

Once, during thirtieth kalpa named Rakta, Lord Brahma was meditating on Parameshthi Shiva. Suddenly a divine child appeared before him who was of red complexion and who had put on red apparels. He was none other than Lord Vaamdev. Lord Brahma immediately realized the divinity of that child and was convinced that he was the embodiment of Almighty God. 

Lord Brahma eulogized Vaamdev who was pleased by his devotions. Four divine entities-Virija, Vivahu, Vishoka and Vishwabhavana manifested from the body of Vaamdev. All of them had great resemblance to Lord Vaamdev. Vaamdev preached them on the finer points of religiousness so that mankind could be benefited by this knowledge. 

3 & 4. Pulasthia and Pulaha Gothrams

Note- I have combined these two sages because many  datas received  pertains both. 

Nainital and Pulasthia- Pulaha

Nainital is referred to in the ‘Manas Khand’ of the ‘Skanda Purana’ as the Tri-Rishi-Sarovar, the lake of the three sages, Atri, Pulastya and Pulaha who were reputed to have arrived here on  a penitential pilgrimage and, finding no water to quench their thirst dug a hole and siphoned water into it from Mansarovar the sacred lake inTibet.

King Bharata  and Pulaha

The life of King Bharata depicted in Purana highlights the truth that attachment can distract even a man of renunciation. Born in the lineage of mighty emperors, Bharata ruled the kingdom he inherited with a sense of duty and devotion. 

He was not only a just king loved by his subjects but was also spiritually inclined, as his father Rshabhadeva was a manifestation of the Lord Himself. Bharata performed many sacrifices and his devotion to God grew day by day. He retired to the hermitage of Sage Pulaha on the bank of the Gandaki river (Salagramakshetra in Nepal) after dividing the kingdom between his sons, to devote his life to worshipping God. 

As he sat meditating one day, he was disturbed to see a pregnant deer in distress chased by a lion and it succumbed to the exhaustion of premature delivery. Moved at the sight of the helpless young one without its mother he took it to his hermitage and lavished his care on it to the extent that he became intensely attached to it. Such a man of detachment who had gained total control of his senses and mind after renouncing a kingdom voluntarily, now doted on a deer whose welfare and pranks occupied his entire attention that he was reborn as a deer in his next birth.

Pulasthia and Mangalya sthavam 

Mangalya sthavam’ is a prayer addressed to several avatharas of Lord Vishnu, occurring in the forty third chapter of the Vishnu Dharmotharam Ithihasam. It is a conversation between Sage Pulasthya and his disciple sage Dhaulabhya. 

On being asked by Dhaulabhya, about the most suitable prayer to drive away bad dreams and for being able to complete all jobs in a proper fashion, sage Pulasthya tells him that only a prayer to Lord Vishnu would help him achieve that, and he also teaches the prayer to him. That prayer is “Mangalya sthavam”. 

The prayer is for increasing ‘mangalyam’ (Mamasthu mangalya vivrudhaye)by seeking Lord Vishnu’s blessings,to protect oneself from all evils and sins The result is that any work started with a prayer for Mangalya- vriddhi, (as in Mangalya sthavam) is completed without any problem. 

The Phala-sruthi of this sthothra says that on reciting this at the beginning of any action, the sins that hinder that action are removed. The action can be fulfilled without hindrances and one will also be blessed with all types of wealth. 

Sreemad Bhagavattham has got lot of ref to Pulasthia and Pulaha  Ashram in Hardwar SB 5.7.8 SB 5.7.11 SB 5.8.30 SB 10.79.10 

Sage Pulasthya has described how to start vedic rituals as follows:- Take bath, do sandhya vandanam, and collect enough water to sprinkle over the  homa articles and the  house. Do achamana and start the Vedic rituals.

In the lineage from Satrupa –Prasuti –Preeti got married to Pulasthia and her sister Kshama got married to Pulaha. 

Kshama-wife of Sage Pulaha had many offspring among whom Kardam & Sahishnu were prominent. 

Preeti, wife of Sage Pulastya had two sons named Dattarnavr and Dahvahu. She also had a daughter named Dwashdwati. Kratu’s wife-Sannati had six thousand offspring who became famous as Baalkhilyas. 

5. Angirasa Gothra

Sage Angirasa appear in addition pravara of many gothras. 

Sage Angirasa is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Sages) and the Manasaputra (son born of the mind) of Brahma. He is one of the Projenitors of humankind 

He is also mentioned in the other three Vedas. Sometimes he is reckoned as one of the Seven Great Sages, or saptarishis of the first Manvantara, with others being, Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. 

Brahmas mind born daughter is Satrupa. Her daughter is Prasuti. Prasuti’s daughter Smriti was the wife of sage Angirasa. 

She had given birth to five daughters— Sini, Vali, Kuhu, Raka and Anumati. Sage Brihaspati was his son. 

Other accounts say that he married smrithy, the daughter of Daksha. In the Rigveda, Agni is sometimes referred to as Angiras or as a descendant of Angiras (RV 1.1). In the Rigveda, Indra drives out cows from where they had been imprisoned by either a demon (Vala) or multiple demons (the Panis) and gifts them to the Angirasas (RV 3.31, 10.108 and a reference in 8.14). Mandala 6 of the Rigveda is attributed to a family of Angirasas. 

Lord Buddha is said to be a descendant of Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts.

Many verses in the Vedas are attributed to Sage Angirasa. 

Atharva veda and Angirasa 

He along with sage Atharvan are said to have composed most of the Atharvana Veda. Some descendents of Sage Angirasa are said to be Kshatriya by birth and Brahmins by calling. This is so because the Sage helped a childless King to beget children. 

Atharva Veda : Atharva Veda has mantras, those are to be used for various special purposes. The Atharva Veda Samhitaa has two parts. (1) The Atharva & (2) the Angirasa. Because of these two major sections, this Veda is also called Atharva angirasa, and in short Atharva Veda. 

Para and Apara Vidya

One of the stories related to Sage Angirasa is mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad. A householder by the name Saunaka carries his firewood and reaches the forest where Sage Angirasa is. He approaches the Sage reverentially and beseeches “O Holy Sage, teach me that through which the whole universe can be known.” 

Angirasa was happy to hear the beautiful question, and started his discourse by classifying the entire spectrum of things to be known into two categories. The Para and the Apara Vidya. As the Apara Vidya ‘objects’, and Para Vidya ‘object’ requires an entirely different approach Shaunaka inspite of his best efforts could not get the desired fruit of omniscience was that he was unknowingly pursuing Apara Vidya but with the wish to get the fruits of Para Vidya, and thus the frustration. 

Sage Angirasa goes on to explain the two different kinds of knowledge on this Earth. The lower knowledge he states are the sciences, hymns, rituals, grammar, poetry astrology etc. The higher knowledge is that which leads a man to that which never dies. The Indestructible. 

Sage Angiras to explain this further says “This body is like a tree in which two birds live. They look alike. The lower bird is tasting the fruits of the tree and some are sweet and others are sour. The higher bird is just watching the lower bird.  One day the lower bird is tired of everything and starts to weep. The lower bird sees the higher bird which is calm, unattached and at peace. The lower bird hops towards the higher one. It suddenly realizes that the upper bird is also just himself, his true Self. Knowing this his grief disappears. He realises that the Ego was not real, the Self was real, the observer of all. 

 6. Sadamarshna Gothram 

A few words more about Shatamarshana Gothram. Natha Muni, Aalavandar (Yaamuna Muni) belong to this Gothram. 

About Shatamarshana Gothram lineage, Before Shatamarshana: Ankiras, Purugutsar and Trasadasyu were all born in this Gothram. Shatamarshana gothris are called Sreshtars or Sottai Kulam people in Tamil. 

Aalawandar refers to his reputed Lineage referring to his grandfather Nata Muni & Shatamarshana this way: 

“Sottai nambi” son of Alavandhar (great grand son of Nathamuni) , one of the 74 mudhalis, could be the reason for the name “sottai kulam”. { Perhaps he was bald in some usual part of the head and was addressed that way!). Many vaishanvites belong to  this gothram. We have already seen the lineage of Angiras. 

1.Ankiras – Shatamarshana (Penance in the middle of Five fires at Haridhwar and got the boon that the Sata Vayu will not affect him. His predecessors, Purukutsar and Traasa Dasyu were authorities on Rig Veda. 

Tras is made up of 3 Kinds of fear.Since these three kinds of fear ran away fro him out of fear for his Power derived from penance, He is called Trasa Dhasyu. All the three Rishis (Ankiras, Purukutsar, Trsadasyu) are thus included in the Pravaram of Shatamarshana Gothris. 

7. Athreya Gothram 

3. Atreya is a descendent of Sage Atri  one of the saptharshies.We have already read about Atri Gothra. The lineage for Atreya Gothram is.Atri—) Dattatreya- 

Indras’s palace on earth -story 

Atreya is a descendent of Sage Atri. He had done many yagnas and was able to go to any place as he liked.  One day in course of his wanderings he came to the court of Indra which fascinated him by its beauty and festivities.  He thought that no other place could be more pleasant and he wanted it with all his heart.  His modest hut could not please him any more.  He called his wife and told, ‘What sort of rubbish are you giving me to eat?  Does it taste good?  Your fruits and vegetables cannot come anywhere near the sweetmeats I ate at Indra’s court’. 

So saying he called Viswakarma and asked him to make his hermitage like Indra’s palace.  If you do not do as I tell I shall reduce you to ashes by curse.  The buildings, the court, the gardens, the elephant, the horse, the chandelier, the music, the food, and the courtiers – all these must be as they are in Indra’s palace. 

Afraid of the curse, Viswakarma forthwith built a palace which could rival Indra’s palace. Much pleased the muni said, ‘This is the very thing I wanted’.  After some time however the demons began to frown at the place and said, ‘Look, that fellow Indra has surreptitiously left the heaven and built up a home on earth.  Let us go and give him a good thrashing for killing our Vritra’. 

Shouting, ‘Kill Indra! Kill Indra!’ the demons in a body laid that palace under siege.  The muni was happily reclining on his bed.  But when he heard the shouts of the demons he became mortally afraid.  Within minutes using all kinds of weapons the demons reduced the place to a heap of rubbles.  The muni himself did not escape some minor injuries.  He came out trembling and going to the demons he told them with folded hands, ‘I swear, I am not Indra, I am a muni, a Brahmin and a very poor and innocent man. Why are you so angry with me?’  ‘Then why have you been posing like Indra?  Remove your trappings at once’, said the demons. 

‘At once I am doing as you say.  I must have lost my head and did these foolish things.  I shall never do it again.’  Viswakarma was summoned and was told by the muni to replace the palace with his modest ashram.  He told him, ‘Do it soon, or I shall die at the hands of these demons.’ 

Realizing that the muni was in grave danger Viswakarma readily obeyed and the huts and the forests reappeared where a short while ago a palace stood. However, before he left Viswakarma enjoyed a hearty laugh at the predicament of the muni.

Section VI

 1. Kutsa gothram 2. Shounaka gothram 3. Parasara gothram.


Kutsa Maharishi is a Saptarishi of this Manvantara. Each Rishi has their own speciality, Maharishi Kutsa stands for sweetness. It is said that of the 82 suktas in the Rudram, about 65 are the outpourings of Maharishi Kutsa. It is also stated that Kutsa Maharishi explained the allegories of the first laws of celestial bodies

The Prokshana Mantram goes as follows “Om Bhoo: Om Bhuvaha: Om Suvaha�. It is said that water is a purifier. The water gets the ability to purify anything that it touches. This power is rested upon water through the Prokshana Mantram. The Taittriya Samhita states that the Mantra Drishtas of the above mantra are none other than Atri, Bhrigu & Kutsa Maharishi.

A1 Meaning of Kutsa

Kutsa is indeed a very strange name. The word Kutsa means in Sanskrit fault-finding One who engages in scolding or belittling others. How could such a name attach to one who was a great Mantra DrishTaa in his own right besides being in the lineage of the renowned Maharishi Aangirasa ?

It might mean that perhaps he was very exasperated with the vagaries of the world and was vocally expressing his displeasure to the annoyance of those who were annoyed with him for his stentorian disciplining. And, therefore, this name got stuck to him.

A2 Kutsa and Anpil temple

It is, however, seen that even this great Rishi who was so strict in his own observances, once made a mistake in pronouncing a Veda mantram and, therefore, was cursed to become a frog in the well. When he atoned for his lapse, Veda Purusha told him that even while being a frog, he would remember his previous birth and will be relieved of the curse if he did penance in a PushkaraNi (Holy waters) and prayed to Soundararaja PerumaaL in Vaalmiki kshEtram for 48 days. This he did and was cured of his curse and regained his former self.

This Valmiki kshetram is none other than ANBIL, the birthplace of Sage Vaalmiki and one of the 108 Divya DEsams consecrated by Tirumazhisai Azhwar. The PushkaraNI is known as Mandooka PushkaraNi. (Authority: Tiruvarangam TirukkOyil (pages 73-74) of the official publication of Sri Ranganatha Swami Devastaanam, Srirangam) (Incidentally, this is one of the many glories of ANBIL, ANBIL is situated 5 miles east of Lalgudi, in Tiruchy District, Tamil Nadu)

A3 Prokshana manthram

We are familiar with the PrOkshaNa mantram, Om Bhoo: Bhuva: and Suvaha. The Mantra drishTa of the fourth Vyaahriti Suvah. Is none other than this Kutsa Rishi. The Veda Vakhya in Taittriya Samhita 2.6.5 attests this fact thus:

BrahmavaadinO vadantyatbhir haveemshi proukshee: kenaapa iti brahmaNEti brooyaat adbirhyEva haveemshi prOkshati brahmaNaapa: This occurs in the Yaaga prakaraNam in the Vedas as an answer to the question:

With what do you purify the offerings (havis) – By sprinkling water

A4. Kutsa mistaken for Indra by Indrani herself

Rig Veda 4.16.10 mentions a conversation between Sage VaamadEva and Indra which illustrates how Kutsa and Indra were not only bosom friends but also were look-alikes so much that at one stage IndraNi herself could not differentiate between them. She had to ascertain from the horses mouth of Indra himself!

It would appear that at the request of Kutsa who was the son of one Rajarishi called Ruru, Indra helped in decimating Rurus enemies and invited Kutsa to Indraloka to celebrate the victory. It was then that the above incident happened.

There is a Sooktam in Rik Veda 1.106.6 that consists of 7 mantras. Though Kutsa discovered this Sooktam, he took pride in calling it in conjunction with his Achaarya, Aaangirasa as Kutsa: Aangeerasa:

A5 Kalidasa and Kutsa

Kaalidaasa commences the 5th Sargam of his Raghuvamsa with an invocation to Kutsa. it was due to the blessings of Sage Koutsa that fame of Raghu Vamsa was firmly established.


Shaunaka is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. It is especially the name of a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, author of the rig veda-Pr�tiś�khya, the Brihad-devat�, the Caraṇa-vyūha and other works. He is claimed as the teacher of Katyayana and especially of Ashvalayana, and is said to have united the Bashkala and Shakala Shakhas of the Rigveda. In legend, he is sometimes identified with Gritsamada, a Vedic Rishi. According to the Vishnu Purana, Shaunaka was the son of Gritsamada, and invented the system of the four levels of human life.

B1 Shounaka and Mahabharata

Shaunaka had a prominent role in the epic MahÄbhÄrata. The epic MahÄbhÄrata was narrated to Shaunaka by a story teller named Ugrasrava Sauti during a conclave of sages headed by Shaunaka in a forest named Naimisha.

Sounaka, who learned all the PuraaNas from the renowned Sootha PouraaNikar and publicized them to the world.

Name of Kutsa is found mentioned in the Vedas in about 40 to 50 contexts shows how the greatness of this Rishi is recognized in the Vedas.


ParÄsÅara is a Rigveda MahÄrishi and author of many ancient Indian texts. ParÄsÅ›ara was the grandson of Vasishtha, the son of Shakti-muni, and the father of Vyasa.

There are several texts, which give reference to ParÄsÅ›ara as the author/speaker. Modern scholars believe that there were many individuals who used this name throughout time. Hindus believe that the same ParÄ�Å›ara taught these various texts and the time of writing them varied. The actual sage himself never wrote the texts, he was known as a traveling teacher, and the various texts attributed to him are given in reference to ParÄsÅ›ara being the speaker to his student. I being a learner of astrology refer to Parasara Hora sasthra

C1 Parasara- sathya vathi- Mahabharata

Brahma created Vasishtha and with Arundhati had a son named Shakti-muni who had ParÄsÅ›ara. With Satyavati, ParÄsÅ›ara had Vyasa. Vyasa had Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura through his dead brother’s wives. Thus ParÄsÅ›ara was the great-grandfather of both the warring parties of the MahÄbhÄrata, the Kauravas and the PÄndavas.

He was present also during the time of Bhisma’s death

C2- Parasara was brought up by Vasistha

ParÄsÅara was raised by his grandfather, Vasishtha, because he lost his father at an early age. His father, Shakti-muni, was on a journey and came across an angry Rakshasa (demon) who had once been a king but was turned into a demon feeding on human flesh as a curse from Vishwamitra. The demon devoured ParÄsÅ’s father. In the Vishnu Purana, ParÄsÅ›ara speaks about his anger from this. Infact vasistha wanted to leave the world on grief¦

C3 Texts attributed to sage ParÄsÅsara

Author of verses in the Rigveda: recorded as the author of RV 1.65-73 and part of RV 9.97.

ParÄsÅara Smriti (also called ParÄsÅ›ara Dharma Samhita): a code of laws, which is stated in the text to be for the present Kali Yuga.

Speaker of Vishnu Purana considered by scholars as one of the earliest Puranas. [4]

speaker of the Brihat ParÄsÅara HorÄÅ SÄstra , also written as BPHS. It is considered a foundational text of astrology. The Sanskrit in which it is composed dates to the 7th or 8th centuries CE 
Speaker of the Vrksayurveda (“the science of life of trees”), one of the earliest texts on botany.[1].

This text was considered to be an ancient botany primer for students of Traditional Indian Medicine.

Mahamuni parasara, Husband of Satyavati and the father of Vyasadeva. Maitreya was Mahamuni Parasara’s diciple, so Vyasa and Maitreya were very close friends.

He was spiritual master of Maharaja Janaka and a great devotee of Lord Siva. He is the author of many Vedic scriptures and sociological directions.

We may be recollecting the verse-Parasaratmaka m vanthaee sukathathum thaponidhim in Vishnu sahasranam.

C4. Parasaramasmrithi- some interesting points

He also manifested to the people living in the Kali Yuga his blessings in the scripture called Parasar Smriti. Smriti created by sage Parashar and known by his name as ‘Parashar Smriti is the most benevolent for the modern Kali Yuga. Parashar has himself said:KRITE TU MANAVO DHARMASTRETAYAAM GAUTAMO SMRITAH ||
Meaning- Manu Smriti was most relevant in Satya Yuga. In Treta, Smriti created by Gautam had most relevance whereas in Dwapar, Shankh’s Smriti was mostly recognized. But in Kali Yuga, it is Parashar Smriti that by and large shows the way to the ignorant people.

Sage Parashar was the father of Vedvyasa. In the first chapter of this great treatise, Maharshi Vedvyasa requests his father to create such an ideologically and morally sufficient discipline that will help the people in Kali Yuga to overcome their woes.


Meaning- All these religions were created in Satya Yuga and would be destroyed in Kali Yuga. Hence, kindly outline some ordinary religious norms so that all the four classes could run their lives in a religious way.
Sage Parashar too was fully aware of the attenuation that religion would suffer in future on the basis of his deep knowledge, that great sage contemplated on the problems which he thought would imminently afflict the religion in Kali Yuga. Change is the only thing that remains constant in nature. Religion is also no exception to this rule.

In twelve chapters, Parashar Smriti preaches its whole moral discourses. Conduct and expiation are the main subjects of contemplation here.

C4.1.How to treat a Beggar appearing while sraadha is performed

If a beggar arrives when a Brahmin household is offering sacrifices for the solace of his deceased ancestors, the Brahmin must divide the cereals in two parts and should reserve one to make offerings and donate the other as alms to the beggar.


Meaning- The sin committed unknowingly while offering sacrifices to the dead ancestors is done away with by the beggar. But, a crime committed against a beggar at such a moment is never done away with by the offering of sacrifices to the dead ancestors.

C.4.2 Offering Sacrifices to the dead ancestors:

Offering sacrifices to the dead ancestors is one of the five great Yagyas. During this ritual, a Brahmin should make offerings to the sacred fire. Then, he should use the remaining cereals to offer to the dead ancestors and also to the animals and birds. If a Brahmin does not perform this ritual, he is bound to suffer severe torments in hell and take reincarnation as a crow.

C.4.3 Norms for Dining:

A Brahmin should dedicate his food to God first. Then he should take it as a pious giving of God. While dining, a Brahmin should not cover his head, should not face the south and should not put his hand on the left leg. These are all deeds characteristic of demons.


Regarding the duties of a woman, sage Parashar says that a woman, who doesn’t serve even her disabled husband faithfully, turns the family into a hell.


Meaning- A woman, who does  not regard her poor, diseased or ignorant husband, becomes a serpent after her death and faces widowhood again and again.

After her monthly periods, a woman must crave for intercourse only in the company of her husband.


Meaning- A woman, who does not dedicate herself after her periods to her husband, goes to hell after her death and faces widowhood in subsequent births.


A husband, who does not accept the desire of his wife of having intercourse after her periods, commits a crime equal to killing an unborn child.

Sage Parashar asserts that, killing an unborn child is more severe sin than killing a Brahmin.

A sweet relation between the spouses is the key to a successful social life. Hence, they should help each other with dedication at the times of emergency. Husband should also respect his wife and behave accordingly even if she is a disabled person.

C.4.6 illegal relations

The tenth chapter describes the expiation required to wash the sins of having illegal carnal relations with women other than the wife. Sage Parashar, it seems, had known that it would be a characterizing feature of Kali Yuga. Hence, he says


Meaning- A man who has relations with other women than his wife, can get purified only by observing Chandrayan Vrata (a fast devoted to the moon).

Those Brahmins, who have illegal carnal relations with the women of low caste must observe a fast for three days and three nights continuously. Then, he must get shaven of his head hair including the normal tuft of hair left otherwise. And ultimately, he should observe to Prajapatya Vrata.

C.4.7 Nightmares:

According to Parashar Smriti, nightmares are akin to the sins and require proper expiation by taking a bath.


Meaning- If one has a nightmare in which he sees himself vomiting, getting shaven, having intercourse or sees smokes rising above a cremation ground, one should get purified by taking proper bath. Taking a proper bath, ill effects of a nightmare are removed.

C5. Parasara and Tirupuram kundram- Saravana Poikai

The six sons of sage Parasara were cursed to become fishes in the Saravana Poigai. On request for redemption, these six boys were ordered to pray to Lord Subrahmanya.

When they got his darsan, they could get redemption. It was also made known to them that Lord Subrahmanya would come to Tirupparankunram after vanquishing the demon Surapadma. Anxiously they waited for the arrival of Subrahmanya.

When the mission of Subrahmanya to vanquish Surapadma was over at Tiruchendur, on his way, he came to this spot followed by all the devas and heavenly beings whom he had released from the untold miseries caused by Surapadma.

On his arrival at Tirupparankunram, the sons of Parasara received Subrahmanya and, at their request, he consented to stay there. He at once ordered Viswakarma to construct a beautiful abode for himself, for the devas and for others.

He also suggested to the heavenly architect to build roads and erect a city around them.

C6. Parasa- Limping sage

ParÄsÅara was known as the “limping sage”. He had his leg wounded during the attack of his ashram.

Section VII

 1. Srivatsa Gothra 2. Vatsa Gothram 3. Kausika Gothram 4. Shadamarshna Gotra & Naithrupa Kasyapa Gothram.

The famous “Dasagothrams” (ten Gothrams) are : Aathreya, Bharathwaja, Gauthama, Jaamadagnya, Kaasyapa, Kaundinya, Kausika, Vaasishta, Vaatsa & Vishwaamitra. 

In Dwadasa gothrams the following additional gothras, apart from Dasa gothrams are told. These are: Agasthia, Aangirasa, Gargi, Haritha, Kanva, Kutsa, Moudgalya, Naithruva Kasyapa, Parasara, Sandilya, Sankrithi, Shadarmarshna, Srivatsa & Vaadula.We have already covered from the list of 48 gothras 32 already. The remaining are 16 including the not covered itemsfrom the dasa gothras and dwadasa gothras. 

The not covered Gothras from the list of dasa gothras and dwadasa gothras are the following:- a. Sri vatsa  and b. vatsa Gothram c..Kousika Gothram  d.. shadamasrana e. Naidrupa kasyapa gothram. In this section 7, these gothras are covered. 

3A.Sreevatsa Gothra

In the south a number of Brahmin families belong to Sree vatsa Gothra. Including me too. In fact I started the write up trying to know about sage Srivatsa. I could get very few references about sage Srivatsa. 

The Vedas reiterate the supremacy of Lord Narayana who protects the entire creation. The names and adjectives used to refer and describe Him further corroborate His omnipotent nature. 

Once when the sages were discussing among themselves as to who was the protector of the entire manifestation, it was Sage Srivatsa who pointed out that it was Lord Narayana who sustained the entire creation and related the instance of His incarnation as Varaha (boar) to protect Mother Earth. 

The lineage for Srivatsa Gothra is from sage Brighu and Valmiki.  The pravara has 5 rishies Bhargava, chyavana, aplavana, aurva, Jamadagniya. We have covered Bhargava gothram and Jamadagni gothram too. 

Correctly pronounced shri vatsa bhArgava, chAyvana, ApnavAna, aurva, jAmadagnya is the pravara. 

They are bhArgavas, descendents of bhRiigu, just like gAlava who is also a branch of the bhArgava clan. 

I have read from the net the pravara sages less being for fathers and gothra sage is the last Rishi. Is it the reason we don’t have much about sage Srivatsas  Sri vatsa is a mark on the Lord Vishnu’s chest and where Goddess Lekshmi resides. Every body know the story of Maha Vishnu remained calm and asked Brighu whether he felt pain on his leg while hitting him. 

I request learned readers to support my write up about Srivatsa Gothra with their additional information.

4B Vatsa Gothra

The sage Vatsa is refered in Padma purana explaing the glories of chapter 14 by Lord Siva to Parvathi 

Lord Shiva said “O Parvati, kindly hear from me the glories of the Fourteenth Chapter of the Ṥrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, with the greatest attention. 

In Simhaladvip was a king of the name Vikrama-Vetala. One day, when he was going to the forest for hunting, he took his son and two hunting dogs along with him. When he reached the forest he released one dog to chase a rabbit. When that dog was chasing it, the rabbit looked as if it was flying. Running and running, that rabbit reached a beautiful hermitage, which was very peaceful. Deer were sitting happily under the shade of the trees, and monkeys were joyfully eating the fruits of those trees. The cubs of the tigers were playing with the baby elephants, and snakes were crawling over the peacocks. 

In this forest, the great sage Vatsa lived, who worshipped Lord Krishna by reciting the Fourteenth Chapter of the Ṥrīmad Bhagavad-gītā. 

Near the ashram of Vatsa, one of his disciples was washing his feet while chanting the Fourteenth Chapter of Ṥrīmad Bhagavad-gītā. The earth at that spot became wet. Just then that rabbit came running and slipped in the mud. Immediately that rabbit attained a heavenly body. An airplane came down, picked him up and took him off to the heavenly planets. After a moment, the dog arrived there in search of the rabbit, and he also slipped in the mud. He gave up that dog body, attained a heavenly body and was also taken off to the heavenly planets. 

Seeing all of this, the disciple of Maharaja Vatsa started to laugh. King Vikrama-Vetala, having witnessed those amusing events, inquired from that brahmana, “How is it possible that the rabbit and the dog went off to heaven in front of our eyess” 

That Brahmana said, “In this forest, a great sage of the name Vatsa, who has completely conquered his senses, is always engaged in chanting the Fourteenth Chapter of the Ṥrīmad Bhagavad-gītā. I am his disciple, and I am also by his grace always engaged in chanting the Fourteenth Chapter of the srīmad Bhagavad-gītā. Due to that rabbit and dog slipping in the mud which had been made wet from the water which had washed my feet, they both attained the higher planets. 

Now I will tell you the reason why I was laughing. In Maharashtra there is the town of the name Pratudhak. A brahmana of the name Keshava had lived there. He was the most cruel of men. His wife’s name was Vilobbana. She was a very loose lady who always enjoyed the company of other men. For this reason, her husband became very angry and killed her. In her next life she became that dog, and that brahmana Keshava, due to his sinful activities, became that rabbit.” 

Lord Shiva said, “After hearing the glories of the Fourteenth Chapter of Ṥrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, King Vikrama-Vetala also began daily reciting the Fourteenth Chapter of Ṥrīmad Bhagavad-gītā. 

When he gave up that body, he went to Vaikuntha, where he was able to engage eternally in the service of the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu. 

The pravars of vatsa gothra is 3 only  and not 5 like Srivatsa Gothra. 

Vatsa -Bhargava, Syavana, Aplanavana. 

There is a referance of vatsa king also. But there is nothing about he became a sage like Viswamithra. 

5 C.Kousika Gothra 

King Kousika  was Kshatriya, Kaushik gotra is also of many Kshatriyas too. Certain text Vishwamitra has been refered as Brahmarshi while Kaushik  as Rajarshi. 

The Bhrugu gotra families consider good fortune to get a girl from this family. Jamdagni’s mother Satyavati was Vishwamitras sister, and his wife Renuka was also a Kshatriya. Hence it can be seen that the Gotras of Kshatriyas have a very solid foundation. Vishwamitra- ( 13 sub lineage Rishis) 

Kousika gothra have different pravara sages from Viswamithra. 

Kausika (Kusika)  Vaiswamithra, AagamarshaNa, Kausika – Thrayarsheya. 
Viswamithra- Vaiswamithra, Devaraatha, Authala – Thrayarsheya.

There is also a version actually Kausika was the grandfather of Vishwamitra (Kausika), but feel this do not hold water from the following quotes form the RAmAyaNa Ayodhya Kanda Sarga 32, slokha 11 to 2012. 

Rama spoke affectionately to Lakshmana asfollows. 12. 

13,14.Rama then told Lakshmana to invite sages Agastya and Kousika and shower them with costly gifts. 

15,16.Ramatells  Lakshmanatodonateapalanquin,scarificialpedastalsandsilkclothesto thosewhoarewellversedinvedasandtaitriyaupanishad. 

Every body know about Yogavasistha incident  and after that Sri rama and Lekshmana proceed with sage Kousika(Viswamithra). 

The day’s journey brought them to the bank of the Sona River… Rama asked: “Revered Sir, this region appears rich and prosperous; what is its name and history, I would like to know.” 

Viswamitra replied, “Rama! Brahma had a son through sheer Will. He was named Kusa; he was a great ascetic, steadfast and strict in vows, heroic in spiritual adventure, learned in the science of morals. He wedded the daughter of the noble ruler of Vidarbha… They had four sons – Kusamba, Kusanabha, Adhoortharajaka and Vasu. 

Kusa divided the world into four parts and assigned one part to each of them, directing them thus: “Sons! Rule over the part assigned to each of you and prosper!” 

Each of them started constructing a capital city for the kingdom – Kusamba built Kausambi, Kusanabha built Mahodaya, Adoortharajaka built Dharmaranya and Vasu built Girivraja. 

Rama! This area is part of the kingdom of Vasu; we have all around us five hills, and so, this City is called Girivraja (Collection of Hills). This auspicious Sona river is also known as Sumagadhi, so that this region is named Magadha. The Magadhi flows from east to west here, like a jasmine garland placed among the mountain valleys. The majesty of Vasu has blessed the land on both banks of this river to be ever green and plentiful. 

The second son, Kusanabha, was well established in Dharma; he was a pillar of Righteousness. He had a number of daughters, but, no son….. They were later given in marriage – all of them – to the ruler of Kampilya City, Brahmadatta by name. When they all left for that City, his house became empty and barren.. If only I had a son, this calamity would not have overpowered me.” Thus, He entertained the longing for a son. 

Just then, his father, Kusa, happened to visit him and he enquired the reason why he looked sad and full of concern; the son laid bare before him his mind and its anxieties. Kusa chided him for becoming so worried for this particular reason; he blessed him that he get a son soon. And, as he blessed, so it happened. The son born was named Gaadhi; he grew up to a very devoted virtuous prince; since he was born in the lineage of Kusa he was known as Kousika. 

His sisters lost their husbands after some time and as dutiful wives, they immolated themselves and gained heaven. They were born on the Himalayas as sacred rivers which joined together to form the famous Kousiki river. Kousika was attached very much to the eldest of the sisters, Sathyavathi by name and so, he took residence on the bank of this river, and established himself at Siddha asram, and celebrated the Yajna he had resolved upon with ceremonial rectitude… 

At this, the monks who had gathered around the sage exclaimed, “O, how wonderful! Really, we are fortunate that we could listen to the story of the hoary ancestors of our Master! And started praising… 

Viswamitra interrupted them and said, “I would not have dwelt on all this, but, Rama! Your question prompted me to reply; I do not give details regarding this body and its antecedents. It is already night; let us take rest. 

That night, every one was ruminating over the tales of the forefathers of the Master. 

The story of Vishvamitra is narrated in the Balakanda of Valmiki Ramayana[1]. 

The Mahabharata adds that Vishvamitra’s relationship with Menaka resulted in a daughter, Shakuntala whose story is narrated in the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata. 

His story also appears in various Puranas, however they show variations from the Ramayana. 

People belonging to the Visvamitra Gotra consider Brahmarishi Visvamitra as their ancestor. 

People belonging to Kaushika Gotra take Rajarishi Kausika as their root. Kausika was one of the names of Visvamitra.

11 Royal clans of 96 clan of Marathas belong to Kaushik gotra including the illustrious house of Shivaji and Rashtrakutas. 

2 more clans belong to the Vishvamitra gotra. Kaushika gotra also belongs to Baish clan of rajput which includes in the suryavanshi rajput. 

Some Brahmins in South Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh also have Kaushik/Koushik as a family Gotra. Some of the kumauni region Brahmin like Bhatt also belongs to Kaushik gotra. References ^ Valmiki Ramayana. 

Gautama nyaya sutram, 1.26 

The 28 Saiva Agamas are said to have been revealed from all the five faces of Siva. The first four taught five Agamas each, while the last, Isana, gave rise to eight. 

The Sadyojata face revealed the Kamika, Yogaja, Cintya, Karana and Ajita. These were taught to Kausika Rishi. The rishis who received the agamas were Kausika, Kasyapa, Bharadvaja, Gautama and Agastya. Please note that these are all rig vedic rishis, therefore the rig veda and the agamas could not have been revealed at vastly different times. 

6D Shatamarshana Gothram 

All of them are devotees of Sriman Narayana and are Staunch Vaishnavas. 

About Shatamarshana Gothram lineage, Before Shatamarshana: Ankiras, Purugutsar and Trasadasyu were all born in this Gothram. Shatamarshana gothris are called Sreshtars or Sottai Kulam people in Tamil. Aalawandar refers to his reputed Lineage referring to his grandfather Nata Muni & Shatamarshana thi s way:: ” Janitvaham Jagati Mahati Kyata Yasasam”( Stotra Ratnakaram.) P.A. Ranganatha Tatacharya has written about the glory this Gothram in his monograph” Shatamarshana Gothra Prabhavam”.

Some of the Hebbar iyengars in Karnataka belong to this gothram. Natha Muni, Aalavandar(Yaamuna Muni) also belong to this Gothram. 

Brahma according to Puranas had 4 sons:Atri, Bhrigu,Vasishta and Ankiras. Their lines are as follows: 

1. Ankiras) Shatamarshana (Penance in the middle of Five fires at Haridhwar and got the boon that the Sata Vayu will not affect him. Similar to the case of Satakopan (Nammalwar later). His predecessors, Purukutsar and Traasa Dasyu were authorities on Rig Vedam.Tras is made up of 3 Kinds of fear. Since these htree kinds of fear ran away fro him out of fear for his Power derived from penance,He is called Trasa Dhasyu. All the three Rishis (Ankiras, Purukutsar,Trsadasyu) are thus included in the Pravaram of Shatamarshana Gothris. 

In ancient vedic times such transformations, usually involving marriage relationships with famous Brahmin family resulted in kshatriyas becoming brAhmaNas: maudgalya (descendents of king bhR^imyAshva), shaDmarShaNas (descendents of great ikshvAku king trasadasyu), vAdhulas (descendents of king vItayhavya, the haihaya yadu) etc became Brahmins. 

7E Naitruva kaasyapa gothram 

It is debated among scholars that the name Kaasyapa may be generic and many Sages took pride in calling themselves as Kaasyapas with additions. Also it may be likely, explanation, is that a group of descendants decided to split from the main group and started their own branch of this line. 

As such it appears to me since only one sage change in the pravara of this gothra it can be an off shoot of the Kashyapa Gothra. 

Kashyapa – Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Sandilya, Naitruva kashyapa- Kasyapa, Aavatsara, Naitruva. 

The gothra is  correctly pronounced as the naidhruva kAshyapa gotra. The R^ishis were avatsAra, naidhruva were descendent of kashyapas and authors of the somAdhyAya of the 9th maNDala of the R^igveda. The peculiarity of this gotra is the soma only AprI, unlike the agni AprIs of the other gotras. 

 Section VIII

 1. Lohita Gothra, 2. Kapila Gotra, 3. Dathaathreya gothra, 4. Galava gothra, 5. Mathanga Gothra, 6. Surya Datta gothra, 7. Mithrasu Gothra, 8. Kausala gothram, 9. Charora Gotra, 10. Dhalabya gothra & 11. Vishnu Gothra.

The following gothras are covered in this write up. 

a. Lohit Gothrab. Kapila Gothra
c. Dattthreya Gothrad. Galava Gothra
e. Mathanga Gothraf.  Surya data Gothra
g. Mithrasu Gothrah. Kaushal gothra
i.  charora gothraj.  Dalabhya gothram
k. Vishnu Gothra


Lohit literal meaning in sanskrit means ‘red’ colour. Lohit is an Indian name. Widely used by Hindus. Lohit indicates/symbolizes good luck, good omen. In India, people give importance for ‘red’ color especially during some auspicious occasions like ‘pooja’,a red color powder called ‘kumkum’which indicates the power of Goddess Durga. Lohith means red Lohitagni is red flame. Many Mandyam iyengars of  Karnataka have this gothram. 4b.Kapila Gothram 

Most of us know story of Devhuti married to aged sage Kardam. Sage Kardam  had a condition that he will remain with her till progency is achieved. 

At appropriate time, Devhuti gave birth to nine beautiful daughters. With the birth of nine daughters, the resolution of Kardam was completed. 

Devhuti said- But we are all in your refuge. Before deserting us, tell me finding suitable grooms for the daughters is the responsibility of the father. 

He assured his wife: ” Devi, don’t be sad, Very soon, the Lord will appear as your son. Hence, from now on, start worshipping God with faith and devotion and follow self- control. Thus, Devhuti began worshipping the Lord. At appropriate time, the Lord appeared as her son Kapil. 

Meanwhile, Brahma also came there with nine Prajapatis and at his insistence, Kardam married his daughters to those nine Prajapatis. Kalaa was married to Marich, Anusuya to Atri, Shraddha to Angira; Havirbhu to Pulastya, Gati to Pulah, Kriya to Kratu, Khyati To Brighu and Arundhati was married to sage Vashishtha. 

After the appearance of the Lord as Kapil, he preached Kardam. Thereafter, Kardam went to the forests. There, he felt the all pervasive Parmatma in his own Atma(soul) and thus attained Parampada( the supreme status). 

Back in the hermitage, Devhuti too felt the futility of lust. She, therefore requested Kapil for her salvation. Kapil preached her about Yoga, knowledge and devotion towards the Lord. When her prayers were over, Kapil took her permission and went to the forests. Devhuti stayed at the hermitage and meditated on the Lord. 

After several years, Devhuti attained salvation and that place is now known as Siddhipad. It is situated on the banks of the river Saraswati. Having freed herself from all kinds of sins, Devhuti’s body became holy and assumed the form of a river. Even today, all devotees who are blessed with whatever they desire, venerate it. 

Kapila is the father of the Sankhya philiosphy. Veda Vyasa tells us that he is an Avatar of Vishnu and that he is the son of Kardama Maharshi and Devahuti. 

The first philosophy that Sri Krishna discusses in the Bhagavad Gita is the Sankhya philosophy. Patanjali the author of the Yoga Sutras and the Mahabhasya was a follower of the Sankhya philosopy. 

Kapila protested against the sacrifice of animals in Yajna. 

As per the Narada Purana: Kapila had an Asrama in Patala. The sons (60,000 and one) of King Sagara thought that Kapila had stolen their sacrificial horse and they entered Patala. They disturbed Kapila, who turned them to ashes with a glare. The Nagas fled Patala in fear. Sagara adopted his grandson, Amshuman and sent him to Patala to recover the horse. Amshuman respectfully approached Kapila and recovered the horse. (Note the number 60,000 – that is a clue to an astronomical significance…. which we shall explore later). And then Bhagiratha story…. 


The DattAtreya gotra while not seen in south India is seen amongst Himachalis and Kashmiris they all descend from the great atri bhauma the first of the Atris. 

As every body know the story of birth of Dattathreya to sage Atri toAnasuya  ,it is not detailed here. 

6d.Galava gothra 

Galava gothra, has limited descendents are found even in North India, I am not sure about south India. 

7e Mathanga gothra 

In the Ramayana, Maharishi Matanga was a man who was brought up as a Brahmin but was the son of a Chandala. It possibly refers to many different persons. 

In the Ramayana, Rama and Lakshman visited the hermitage of Matanga near the Rishyamuka mountain and met the devotional tribal woman, Shabari. His story, as told in the Mahabharata, relates that he was mercilessly goading an ass’s foal which he was driving. The mother ass, seeing this, tells her foal that she could expect no better, for her driver was no Brahmin but a Chandala. Matanga, addressing the ass as “most intelligent,” begged to know how this was, and was informed that his mother when intoxicated had received the embraces of a low-born barber, and that he, the offspring, was a Chandala and no Brahmin. 

In order to obtain elevation to the position of a Brahmin, he went through such a course of austerities as to alarm the gods. Indra refused to admit him. He persevered again for a hundred years, but still Indra persistently refused such an impossible request, and advised him to seek some other boon. Nothing daunted, he went on a thousand years longer, with the same result. Though dejected he did not despair, but proceeded to balance himself on his great toe. He continued to do this for a hundred years, when he was reduced to mere skin and bone, and was on the point of falling. Indra went to support him, but inexorably refused his request, and, when further importuned, “gave him the power of moving about like a bird, and changing his shape at will, and of being honoured and renowned.” 

The Sage Matanga is renowned as the one who was granted the boon of having his prayer granted, that the supreme Divine Mother (God as Mother) be born in his family as his own daughter. 

8f Surya data Gothra and 9g Mithrasa Gothra 

Note- I have combined the two since orgin of both the gothras are same. 
Sakaldwipiya Brahmins or Bhojaka Brahmins, is a class of Hindu priests and Ayurveda teachers (acharyas),[1] with concentrations in Western- and Northern India. 

The Sakaldwipiyas are also known as Maga Brahmins. Also known as Maga Brahmins are the Suryadhwaja Brahmins, who however consider themselves to be distinct from the Sakaldwipiya/Bhojaka Brahmins. 

The Sakaldwipiya Brahmin community of India identify themselves as having Iranian roots, and assert that they inherit their by-name maga from a group of priests who established themselves in India as the Maga-Dias or Maga-Brahmanas. 

The doctrinal basis for that assertion is Bhavishya Purana 133, which may be summarized as follows: 

Krishna’s son Samba was afflicted with leprosy, which was cured after he worshiped Surya, Hinduism’s Sun God. In response, he built a temple to Surya on the banks of the Chandrabhaga river, but no competent Brahmin could be found to take up the role of priest in the temple. So Samba sought help of Gauramukha, the adviser of the yadu chief, Ugrasena. 

Gauramukha responded with a suggestion that Samba go to Shakdvipa and invite their priests to worship Surya. Further, asked Samba, “tell me, oh Brahmin, what are the antecedents of these worshipers of the Sun?” 

To which Gauramukha replied… “The first of the Brahmins amidst the Shakhas was called ‘Sujihva.’  He had a daughter of the name Nikshubha, who so enamored Surya that she was impregnated by him. 

Thus she gave birth to Jarashabda who was the founding father of all the Maga-Acharya. They are distinguished by the sacred girdle called the Avyanga that they wear around their waist.” And so Samba called on Krishna to send him Garuda, on whose back he then flew to Shakadwipa. He collected the Maga-Acharya, brought them back to India and installed them as priests of his Surya temple. The lineage married Bhoja vamsa women and so their descendants came to be known as Bhojakas. 

As such, the Sakaldwipiya are one of only two[b] Brahmin groups who are said to have originated outside India, even if about half their clan names (gotras) are the same as those of other Brahmins. Whatever their original beliefs, by the time the Bhavishya Purana 133 was composed the Sakaldwipiyas were identified as devotees of Surya, Hinduism’s deity of the Sun (cf. Hvar). 

Subsequently, in Vrihata samhita 60.19, Varahamihira directs that the installation of the Surya images should be made by the maga, as they were the first to worship the divinity. Other texts enjoin that the images of Surya should be dressed like a northerner with the legs covered, that he should wear a coat and a girdle. The early representations of the divinity actually follow these injunctions, and early iconography depicts the deity in central Asian dress, replete with boots. 

Shakdwipi Brahamins do in fact appear to have been instrumental in the construction of Sun temples in different part of the country, to include Kashmir, Kathiawad and Somnath in Gujarat, Dholpur in Rajasthan, Hissar in Jodhpur, Bharatput and Khajuraho in Madhya pradesh, Konark in Orissa and Deo, Punyark, Devkund and Umga in Bihar. 

The tale of the arrival of the Sakaldwipiyas appears to have been part of living tradition for many centuries. The Govindpur inscription of 1137-1138 refers to a maga family of Gaya, Bihar that was celebrated for its learning, Vedic scholarship and poetic faculty, and who descended from one of the original Samb invitees. 

Note- Do these people are partaking as Brahmins in gaya for our Gaya sraadha? The doubt now come to me from their appearance, complexion and behaviour. It was my experience while performing Gaya sraddha about 50 or Brahmins came for different sraadhas. They just touched all food items andate maximum four handful of items. 

The Brahmins of the Godda district in Uttar Pradesh likewise trace their lineage to the original invitees. The maga-vyakti of Krishnadas Mishra is an elaboration of the legend. 

The Bhojakas are also mentioned in the inscriptions of Maurya Ashoka and Kharavela The A History of Brahmin Clans states that Śākadvīpī Brahmins have a love for traditional (Sanskrit) knowledge and their Saṃskāras are like those of the Maithil Brāhamanas, although matrimonial and other customary relations with Maithil (or other Brahmins) are not in vogue. 

“they wear long Yajnopavita at the age of 8 years, keep quiet while eating, like to keep beards like sages, perform agnihotra, and charmed with mantras, and were called maga because they read the Vedas in haphazard ways.” 

The Sakaldwipiya centre was at Magadha. According to their tradition, they are identified by their purs rather than by their lineage. 

There are altogether 13 Śākadvīpī gotras: Kāśyapa, Garga, Pārāśara, Bhrigu/Bhargava, Kauinya, Kausala, Bharadwaj, Vasu, Suryadatta/Arkadatta, Nala, Bhavya Maṭi and Mihrāsu. 

Major Sakaldwipiya centers are in Rajasthan in Western India and near Gaya in Bihar. 

The term ‘Bhojaka’ is popular in the western states while ‘Sakadvipi’ and its numerous variations is typical for the north and east. The terms ‘Graham Vipra’ and ‘Acharya Brahmin’ are common in West Bengal and Rajasthan. One of the Sakaldwipiya groups, the ‘Suryadhwaja’ Brahmins, are endemic to Northern India and is the only Shakadwipiya group classified as Kashmiri Pandits. 

The Bhojakas are historically associated with several Jain temples in Gujarat and Rajasthan, where they serve as priests and attendants. Some of the Shakdwipi Brahmins of Bihar and Uttar pradesh are Ayurvedic physicians, some are priests in Rajput families, while yet others are landholders. 
10 h  Koushal gothra 

Specifically in Haryana and Punjab Gaur Brahmins from Kaushal Lineage are found. These Brahmins are the direct descendents of Hiranyabha kaushalya Rishi, a teacher of great Indian Sage Yagnavalkya. References to Kaushalya Rishi can be found upon research in Shrimad Bhagwat Maha Puran. Many khatris also use Kaushal as their gotra, however it remains unclear as to the connection between this and the Brahmin lineage. It is a matter of speculation whether it is a result of Guru Shishya Parampara where students took pride in being identifed by the Gotra of their teacher, or whether it is something totally diverse having no connection at all. The Gaur Brahmins of Haryana are indigenous to Haryana and in some cases it is said that they originally came from Bengal a long time ago. 

Kaushal Rajvir was the special name and famous king in the Indian history. It is said that he had 516 queens in his mahal for his pleasure. 

The word Kaushal in Devnagri Thesaurus (Hindi language) means Clever or Perfect or Skillful/Skilled. 

Kaushal is also very common first name for people originating from Gujarat,Bihar, India, West coast region of India. 

Kaushals were the special names given to Hindu kings by their gurus. Most of the Hindu Kings had Kaushals as their Priests. Their origin was in North India & near the areas of Punjab & Himachal Pradesh,Bihar. 

Kaushals were traditionally renowned for their knowledge of astrology and spiritual healing. 

Its mainly used as a Surname or Last Name (e.g. Atul Kaushal) by few of the members of vast Indian Brahmin Community mainly from Northern region. On the other hand it can also be used as an Indian First Name of a person as a Noun (e.g. Kaushal Kadecha). 

11i Charora gothra 

Charora is one of the gotras in Sanadhya Brahmins. Charoras live in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan state in India. 

Sanadya Brahmin (or Sanadh) are a community of Brahmins, living prominently in Western Uttar Pradesh area of India. 

Sanadhya Samhita gives an account of the origin of the Sanadhya community. Lord Ramachandra of Ayodhya invited some Adi Gauda Brahmins to conduct a yajna. As dakshina he gave villages to 750 of them, who came to be called Sanadhya. They were engages in tapa, thus came to be called Sanadhya. 

An alternative theory is that since they worship Lord Sun (or Surya) (Skt san), they are called Sanadhya. Sikh Guru Gobind Singh has mentioned that his ancestors once lived in the Sanadh region, this may have been the region from where the Sanadhya originated. 

In the 19th and 20th national convention of Kanyakubja Brahmins by Kanyakubja Mahati Sabha, in 1926 and 1927 respectively, an earnest appeal was made for unity among Kanyakubja Brahmins whose different branches included Sanadhya, Pahadi(Kumaun Brahmins), Jujhoutia, Saryupareen, Chattisgadhi, Bhumihar Brahmins and different Bengali Brahmins. 

Sanadhyas are a dominant section of north Indian Brahmins, most numerous in Gangetic Doaba region and they touch the Kanaujias on the north west extending over central Rohilkhand, and the part of the upper central duab from Pilibhit to Gwalior. 

Sanadhya Brahmins make a triumvarate along with kanyakubj Brahmins and Bengali brahimns in practicing the doctroine of nobility ; like biswa system of kanyakubj Brahmins and kuleen system of Bengali Brahmins, the sanadhyas rigourusly practice the ‘allh’ system to jeaously safeguard the purity of their blood. They are branch of Adi Gauda Brahmins, Rtviz of ashwmegh yajna performed by Lord Sri Rama and have matrimonial relations in their own fold and Adi Gauda Brahmins.[5] They have matrimonial relations with kanyakubj Brahmins as well. 

Migration and infiltration of Sanadhya Brahmins into central India from the north took place after the fall of Marathas. In the beginning of the 19th century by 1820 AD families of Sanadhyas started to migrate to the Narmada valley extending from Mandla to Hoshangabad and so also into the Malwa from Vidisha to Ujjain and Indore.

12 J Dalabhya gothram 

Dalabhya is a sage mentioned in the Chandogya Upanishad. His lineage is the Dalabhya gotra. The Chandogya Upanishad describes a conversation between sages Shilak, Dalabhya and Pravahana. The sage is also mentioned in the Bhavisya-uttara Purana where the sage Pulastya narrates him the story of Krishna taking the form of a mendicant. 

Yāska (6th-5th centuries B.C. according to Shukla, Georgetown University) was a Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pānini. His famous text is Nirukta, which deals with etymology, lexical category and the semantics of words. He is thought to have succeeded Śākaṭāyana, an old grammarian and expositor of the Vedas, who is mentioned in his text. He is sometimes referred to as Yāska ācārya (ācārya = teacher). 

The Nirukta attempts to explain how certain words get to have their meanings, especially in the context of interpreting the Vedic texts. It includes a system of rules for forming words from roots and affixes, and a glossary of irregular words, and formed the basis for later lexicons and dictionaries. It consists of three parts, viz.:(i) Naighantuka, a collection of synonyms; (ii) Naigama, a collection of words peculiar to the Vedas, and (iii) Daivata, words relating to deities and sacrifices. 

The nirukta was one of the six vedangas or compulsory ritual subjects in syllabus of Sanskrit scholarship in ancient India.

12k Vishnu gothra 

Many people proclaim they are either Vishnu gothra or siva gothra. They are Vaishanvites or Saivites. Mostly Vaisya community is found telling this gothram. 

13 Appended items 

1. Atri Gothra- Sri Durvasa, the venerable one, was ‘born’ into one of the most illustrious family. He is the son of Atri Maharshi, and Sri Anasuya devi. 

2. Viswamithra gothra- In Tamilnadu and Andhra they are about a 20% of the Brahmins. Several kshatriya lines of andhras, like shatavAhanas also claim descent from Vishvamitra. 

VishvAmitra’s clan a famous kshatriya clan became a Brahmin clan- the kaushika gotra. 

Vishvamitra, the grand author of the gayatri mantras in the rig veda is also the author of the Triyambaka mantra (aum triyambakam yajamahe). 

3) Vadula Gothra and Moudgalaya gothras 

In ancient vedic times such transformations, usually involving marriage relationships with famous Brahmin family resulted in kshatriyas becoming brAhmaNas: maudgalya (descendents of king bhR^imyAshva), shaDmarShaNas (descendents of great ikshvAku king trasadasyu), vAdhulas (descendents of king vItayhavya, the haihaya yadu) etc became Brahmins. 
4) Bharadwaja and Bharga va gothras

In more later times many Brahmins assumed kshatriya-hood. The bharadvAja family gave rise to the shunga kings, kANva family to the kANva dynasty, the maitreya family to the maitraka kings, the bhArgava family to the famous ga~nga dynasty of south India. 

5. Kausika, Kasyapa, Bharadvaja, Gautama and Agasthia gothras. 

The 28 Saiva Agamas are said to have been revealed from all the five faces of Siva. The first four taught five Agamas each, while the last, Isana, gave rise to eight. 

The Sadyojata face revealed the Kamika, Yogaja, Cintya, Karana and Ajita. These were taught to Kausika Rishi. 

The Vamadeva face gave rise to Dipta, Sukshuma, Sahasra, Amsumat and Suprabheda, and taught them to Kasyapa Rishi. 

The Aghora face revealed Vijaya, Nisvasa, Svayambhuva, Agneya (or Anala) and Vira, and gave them to sage Bharadvaja. 

The Tatpurusha gave rise to Raurava, Mukata, Vimala, Chandrajnana and Mukhabimba (or Bimba), and taught them to Sage Gautama. 

The Isana face revealed Prodgita, Lalita, Siddha, Santana, Sarvokta, Parameswara, Kirana and Vatula to Sage Agastya.


The Bhagavata Purana states that the Apsaras were born from Kashyap and Muni. 

In the family line of Kashyapa, along with him there are two more discoverers of Mantras, namely, his sons Avatsara and Asita. Two sons of Avatsara, namely, Nidhruva and Rebha, are also Mantra-seers. Asita had a son named Shandila, from whom the famous Shandilya family line (Gotra) started. 


Since Viswamitra fought with Vasistha, and Kanva raised Viswamitra’s daughter, we know that they all lived around the same time. Kanva Rishi Ashram on the banks of river Malini, 42 km from Haridwar. Kanva does not figure in any of the lists of SaptaRishis. He was not one of the Rishis that Satyavrata Manu brought over in his boat. We know him through his Vedic Mantras and through a beautiful play called Abhignyana Sakuntalam written by a great poet called Kalidasa about Viswamitra, Menaka, Sakuntala, Dushyanta, Kanva, Durvasa and Bharata. 

8. Gouthama gothra 

Sita (Ramayan) belongs to Yajur Veda, She belongs to Pravara consisting of the three Rishis viz., Aangirasa, Aayaasya and Goutama, She belongs to Goutama Gotra.

TRS Iyengar

Born on Makara Uthiradam star, native of Mukkur and brought up in Ladavaram village near Arcot and now well settled in Mumbai for over five decades. Presently, at 70, trying to run this website without any commercial expectations or profit motive, just for the sake of our future generations to understand about Sanatana Dharma & Srivaishnavam sampradayam.Within my limited knowledge that I put it here, what I learnt from the world.

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