Gotra Rishis – Brief Note Part II

GOTHRA SAGES – Part 2.

  Compiled by Sri R. Gopalakrishnan, (Retired AGM, BSNL) Tambaram, Chennai.

Introduction.

There are 49 established Lead Hindu Gothras (or Gothram). All members of a particular Gothra are believed to possess certain common characteristics by way of nature or profession.

The term Gothra was used in its present sense for the first time in the Brahmanas. It was systematised by about the 4th century BC to accommodate changed social rules and laws and by the time of the Sutras, it was a well-established system.

Gothras have their orgination to saptharshies who change with Manvanthara. We are in the seventh Manvanthara now.

Many of the seven sages have been repeated and replaced. In the first manvanthara the saptharshies were Marichi, Atri, Angeerasa, Pulasthia,Pulaha Kratu  and Vasishta. They are believed to be the mind-born sons of Brahma.

According to the Baudhâyanas’rauta-sûtra Vishvâmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages; the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be Gothras. We have discussed the Gothra Sages earlier in the Part 1 in sections I to IVIn the following part II, the discussion is about section V to VIII as listed below:

Index

Section  V) 1. Kasyapa gothra 2. Vamadeva gothra 3. Pulasthia Gothra 4. Pulaha gothra 5. Angirasa gothra & 6. Atreya  Gothra

Section VI) 1. Kutsa gothram 2. Shounaka gothram 3. Parasara gothram

Section VII) 1. Srivatsa Gothra 2. Vatsa Gothram 3. Kausika Gothram 4. Shadamarshna Gotra & Naithrupa Kasyapa Gothram

Section VIII) 1. Lohita Gothra, 2. Kapila Gotra, 3. Dathaathreya gothra, 4. Galava gothra, 5. Mathanga Gothra, 6. Surya Datta gothra, 7. Mithrasu Gothra, 8. Kausala gothram, 9. Charora Gotra, 10. Dhalabya gothra & 11. Vishnu Gothra.

Section V

1. Kasyapa gothra 2. Vamadeva gothra 3. Pulasthia Gothra 4. Pulaha gothra 5. Angirasa gothra 6. Sadarmashna & 7. Athreya  Gothra

1. KASYAPA GOTHRA 

Kasyapa gothra is a very very familiar Gothra. Not much known details are detailed while known details are just mentioned. 

Kashyapa a  Vedic sage to whom some hymns of Rigveda are attributed. All authorities agree in assigning to him a large part in the work of creation. 

Kashyapa was the son of Mareechi. Daksha Prajapati married his thirteen daughters with sage Kashyapa. The names of those daughters were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhika, Krodha, Pradha, Vishwa, Vinata, Kapila, Manu and Kadru. 

All these women gave birth to so many children that the whole creation was filled up with their progenies and off springs. 

Aditi was the mother of all the Devatas and the twelve Aaditya (suns). Diti gave birth to the ‘Daitya’ (demons), Danu was the mother of the ‘Danavas’ (demons), ‘Kala’ and ‘Danayu’ also gave birth to the Danavas (demons) ‘Sinhika’ gave birth to lions and tigers, ‘Krodha’ was the mother of the demons who had great anger, ‘Vinata’ gave birth to ‘Garuda’, ‘Arun’ etc. Kadru was the mother of snakes and cobras and ‘Manu’ was the mother of all human beings. Hence, it becomes quite clear that all the species which exist in this world originate from the same ancestor and hence all of us are like brothers and sisters. We are the offspring of Maharshi Kashyapa and so are the trees, the animals, the birds etc. 

Out of these 13 women, Aditi was the senior most loving wife of the sage Kashyapa. She was the mother of all the deities including ‘Indra’. Even Lord Vishnu incarnated as Vamana in this family. 

According to the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas, he was the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma, and he was father of Vivaswat, the father of Manu, the progenitor of mankind, the above is confirmed. 

The Satapatha Brahmana gives a different and not very intelligible account of his origin thus:–– “Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot); hence the word koorma (tortoise). 

Kasyapa means tortoise; hence men say, ‘All creatures are descendants of Kasyapa.’ This tortoise is the same as Aditya.” 

The Atharva veda says, “The self-born Kasyapa sprang from Time,” and Time is often identical with Sri Maha Vishnu. 

The Mahabharata and later authorities agree in representing that Kasyapa married Aditi and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Upon Aditi he begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Vivaswat, and “to Vivaswat was born the wise and mighty Manu.” 

By his other twelve wives, he had a numerous and very diversified offspring: demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is sometimes called Prajapati. 

He is one of the seven great Rishis, and he appears as the priest of Parasurama and Ramachandra. 

So  marrying the daughters of Daksha sage Kashyapa happen to be the co- brother of Lord Siva who married Sati another daughter of Daksha, and also of moon god who married 27 daughters of Daksha from Aswathi  to Revathi. 

2. Vamadeva Gothra

Once, during thirtieth kalpa named Rakta, Lord Brahma was meditating on Parameshthi Shiva. Suddenly a divine child appeared before him who was of red complexion and who had put on red apparels. He was none other than Lord Vaamdev. Lord Brahma immediately realized the divinity of that child and was convinced that he was the embodiment of Almighty God. 

Lord Brahma eulogized Vaamdev who was pleased by his devotions. Four divine entities-Virija, Vivahu, Vishoka and Vishwabhavana manifested from the body of Vaamdev. All of them had great resemblance to Lord Vaamdev. Vaamdev preached them on the finer points of religiousness so that mankind could be benefited by this knowledge. 

3 & 4. Pulasthia and Pulaha Gothrams

Note- I have combined these two sages because many  datas received  pertains both. 

Nainital and Pulasthia- Pulaha

Nainital is referred to in the ‘Manas Khand’ of the ‘Skanda Purana’ as the Tri-Rishi-Sarovar, the lake of the three sages, Atri, Pulastya and Pulaha who were reputed to have arrived here on  a penitential pilgrimage and, finding no water to quench their thirst dug a hole and siphoned water into it from Mansarovar the sacred lake inTibet.

King Bharata  and Pulaha

The life of King Bharata depicted in Purana highlights the truth that attachment can distract even a man of renunciation. Born in the lineage of mighty emperors, Bharata ruled the kingdom he inherited with a sense of duty and devotion. 

He was not only a just king loved by his subjects but was also spiritually inclined, as his father Rshabhadeva was a manifestation of the Lord Himself. Bharata performed many sacrifices and his devotion to God grew day by day. He retired to the hermitage of Sage Pulaha on the bank of the Gandaki river (Salagramakshetra in Nepal) after dividing the kingdom between his sons, to devote his life to worshipping God. 

As he sat meditating one day, he was disturbed to see a pregnant deer in distress chased by a lion and it succumbed to the exhaustion of premature delivery. Moved at the sight of the helpless young one without its mother he took it to his hermitage and lavished his care on it to the extent that he became intensely attached to it. Such a man of detachment who had gained total control of his senses and mind after renouncing a kingdom voluntarily, now doted on a deer whose welfare and pranks occupied his entire attention that he was reborn as a deer in his next birth.

Pulasthia and Mangalya sthavam 

Mangalya sthavam’ is a prayer addressed to several avatharas of Lord Vishnu, occurring in the forty third chapter of the Vishnu Dharmotharam Ithihasam. It is a conversation between Sage Pulasthya and his disciple sage Dhaulabhya. 

On being asked by Dhaulabhya, about the most suitable prayer to drive away bad dreams and for being able to complete all jobs in a proper fashion, sage Pulasthya tells him that only a prayer to Lord Vishnu would help him achieve that, and he also teaches the prayer to him. That prayer is “Mangalya sthavam”. 

The prayer is for increasing ‘mangalyam’ (Mamasthu mangalya vivrudhaye)by seeking Lord Vishnu’s blessings,to protect oneself from all evils and sins The result is that any work started with a prayer for Mangalya- vriddhi, (as in Mangalya sthavam) is completed without any problem. 

The Phala-sruthi of this sthothra says that on reciting this at the beginning of any action, the sins that hinder that action are removed. The action can be fulfilled without hindrances and one will also be blessed with all types of wealth. 

Sreemad Bhagavattham has got lot of ref to Pulasthia and Pulaha  Ashram in Hardwar SB 5.7.8 SB 5.7.11 SB 5.8.30 SB 10.79.10 

Sage Pulasthya has described how to start vedic rituals as follows:- Take bath, do sandhya vandanam, and collect enough water to sprinkle over the  homa articles and the  house. Do achamana and start the Vedic rituals.

In the lineage from Satrupa –Prasuti –Preeti got married to Pulasthia and her sister Kshama got married to Pulaha. 

Kshama-wife of Sage Pulaha had many offspring among whom Kardam & Sahishnu were prominent. 

Preeti, wife of Sage Pulastya had two sons named Dattarnavr and Dahvahu. She also had a daughter named Dwashdwati. Kratu’s wife-Sannati had six thousand offspring who became famous as Baalkhilyas. 

5. Angirasa Gothra

Sage Angirasa appear in addition pravara of many gothras. 

Sage Angirasa is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Sages) and the Manasaputra (son born of the mind) of Brahma. He is one of the Projenitors of humankind 

He is also mentioned in the other three Vedas. Sometimes he is reckoned as one of the Seven Great Sages, or saptarishis of the first Manvantara, with others being, Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. 

Brahmas mind born daughter is Satrupa. Her daughter is Prasuti. Prasuti’s daughter Smriti was the wife of sage Angirasa. 

She had given birth to five daughters— Sini, Vali, Kuhu, Raka and Anumati. Sage Brihaspati was his son. 

Other accounts say that he married smrithy, the daughter of Daksha. In the Rigveda, Agni is sometimes referred to as Angiras or as a descendant of Angiras (RV 1.1). In the Rigveda, Indra drives out cows from where they had been imprisoned by either a demon (Vala) or multiple demons (the Panis) and gifts them to the Angirasas (RV 3.31, 10.108 and a reference in 8.14). Mandala 6 of the Rigveda is attributed to a family of Angirasas. 

Lord Buddha is said to be a descendant of Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts.

  
Many verses in the Vedas are attributed to Sage Angirasa. 

Atharva veda and Angirasa 

He along with sage Atharvan are said to have composed most of the Atharvana Veda. Some descendents of Sage Angirasa are said to be Kshatriya by birth and Brahmins by calling. This is so because the Sage helped a childless King to beget children. 

Atharva Veda : Atharva Veda has mantras, those are to be used for various special purposes. The Atharva Veda Samhitaa has two parts. (1) The Atharva & (2) the Angirasa. Because of these two major sections, this Veda is also called Atharva angirasa, and in short Atharva Veda. 

Para and Apara Vidya


One of the stories related to Sage Angirasa is mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad. A householder by the name Saunaka carries his firewood and reaches the forest where Sage Angirasa is. He approaches the Sage reverentially and beseeches “O Holy Sage, teach me that through which the whole universe can be known.” 

Angirasa was happy to hear the beautiful question, and started his discourse by classifying the entire spectrum of things to be known into two categories. The Para and the Apara Vidya. As the Apara Vidya ‘objects’, and Para Vidya ‘object’ requires an entirely different approach Shaunaka inspite of his best efforts could not get the desired fruit of omniscience was that he was unknowingly pursuing Apara Vidya but with the wish to get the fruits of Para Vidya, and thus the frustration. 

Sage Angirasa goes on to explain the two different kinds of knowledge on this Earth. The lower knowledge he states are the sciences, hymns, rituals, grammar, poetry astrology etc. The higher knowledge is that which leads a man to that which never dies. The Indestructible. 

Sage Angiras to explain this further says “This body is like a tree in which two birds live. They look alike. The lower bird is tasting the fruits of the tree and some are sweet and others are sour. The higher bird is just watching the lower bird.  One day the lower bird is tired of everything and starts to weep. The lower bird sees the higher bird which is calm, unattached and at peace. The lower bird hops towards the higher one. It suddenly realizes that the upper bird is also just himself, his true Self. Knowing this his grief disappears. He realises that the Ego was not real, the Self was real, the observer of all. 

 6. Sadamarshna Gothram 

A few words more about Shatamarshana Gothram. Natha Muni, Aalavandar (Yaamuna Muni) belong to this Gothram. 

About Shatamarshana Gothram lineage, Before Shatamarshana: Ankiras, Purugutsar and Trasadasyu were all born in this Gothram. Shatamarshana gothris are called Sreshtars or Sottai Kulam people in Tamil. 

Aalawandar refers to his reputed Lineage referring to his grandfather Nata Muni & Shatamarshana this way: 

“Sottai nambi” son of Alavandhar (great grand son of Nathamuni) , one of the 74 mudhalis, could be the reason for the name “sottai kulam”. { Perhaps he was bald in some usual part of the head and was addressed that way!). Many vaishanvites belong to  this gothram. We have already seen the lineage of Angiras. 

1.Ankiras – Shatamarshana (Penance in the middle of Five fires at Haridhwar and got the boon that the Sata Vayu will not affect him. His predecessors, Purukutsar and Traasa Dasyu were authorities on Rig Veda. 

Tras is made up of 3 Kinds of fear.Since these three kinds of fear ran away fro him out of fear for his Power derived from penance, He is called Trasa Dhasyu. All the three Rishis (Ankiras, Purukutsar, Trsadasyu) are thus included in the Pravaram of Shatamarshana Gothris. 

7. Athreya Gothram 

3. Atreya is a descendent of Sage Atri  one of the saptharshies.We have already read about Atri Gothra. The lineage for Atreya Gothram is.Atri—) Dattatreya- 

Indras’s palace on earth -story 

Atreya is a descendent of Sage Atri. He had done many yagnas and was able to go to any place as he liked.  One day in course of his wanderings he came to the court of Indra which fascinated him by its beauty and festivities.  He thought that no other place could be more pleasant and he wanted it with all his heart.  His modest hut could not please him any more.  He called his wife and told, ‘What sort of rubbish are you giving me to eat?  Does it taste good?  Your fruits and vegetables cannot come anywhere near the sweetmeats I ate at Indra’s court’. 

So saying he called Viswakarma and asked him to make his hermitage like Indra’s palace.  If you do not do as I tell I shall reduce you to ashes by curse.  The buildings, the court, the gardens, the elephant, the horse, the chandelier, the music, the food, and the courtiers – all these must be as they are in Indra’s palace. 

Afraid of the curse, Viswakarma forthwith built a palace which could rival Indra’s palace. Much pleased the muni said, ‘This is the very thing I wanted’.  After some time however the demons began to frown at the place and said, ‘Look, that fellow Indra has surreptitiously left the heaven and built up a home on earth.  Let us go and give him a good thrashing for killing our Vritra’. 

Shouting, ‘Kill Indra! Kill Indra!’ the demons in a body laid that palace under siege.  The muni was happily reclining on his bed.  But when he heard the shouts of the demons he became mortally afraid.  Within minutes using all kinds of weapons the demons reduced the place to a heap of rubbles.  The muni himself did not escape some minor injuries.  He came out trembling and going to the demons he told them with folded hands, ‘I swear, I am not Indra, I am a muni, a Brahmin and a very poor and innocent man. Why are you so angry with me?’  ‘Then why have you been posing like Indra?  Remove your trappings at once’, said the demons. 

‘At once I am doing as you say.  I must have lost my head and did these foolish things.  I shall never do it again.’  Viswakarma was summoned and was told by the muni to replace the palace with his modest ashram.  He told him, ‘Do it soon, or I shall die at the hands of these demons.’ 

Realizing that the muni was in grave danger Viswakarma readily obeyed and the huts and the forests reappeared where a short while ago a palace stood. However, before he left Viswakarma enjoyed a hearty laugh at the predicament of the muni.

Section VI

 1. Kutsa gothram 2. Shounaka gothram 3. Parasara gothram.

1. KUTSA GOTHRAM

Kutsa Maharishi is a Saptarishi of this Manvantara. Each Rishi has their own speciality, Maharishi Kutsa stands for sweetness. It is said that of the 82 suktas in the Rudram, about 65 are the outpourings of Maharishi Kutsa. It is also stated that Kutsa Maharishi explained the allegories of the first laws of celestial bodies

The Prokshana Mantram goes as follows “Om Bhoo: Om Bhuvaha: Om Suvaha�. It is said that water is a purifier. The water gets the ability to purify anything that it touches. This power is rested upon water through the Prokshana Mantram. The Taittriya Samhita states that the Mantra Drishtas of the above mantra are none other than Atri, Bhrigu & Kutsa Maharishi.

A1 Meaning of Kutsa

Kutsa is indeed a very strange name. The word Kutsa means in Sanskrit fault-finding One who engages in scolding or belittling others. How could such a name attach to one who was a great Mantra DrishTaa in his own right besides being in the lineage of the renowned Maharishi Aangirasa ?

It might mean that perhaps he was very exasperated with the vagaries of the world and was vocally expressing his displeasure to the annoyance of those who were annoyed with him for his stentorian disciplining. And, therefore, this name got stuck to him.

A2 Kutsa and Anpil temple

It is, however, seen that even this great Rishi who was so strict in his own observances, once made a mistake in pronouncing a Veda mantram and, therefore, was cursed to become a frog in the well. When he atoned for his lapse, Veda Purusha told him that even while being a frog, he would remember his previous birth and will be relieved of the curse if he did penance in a PushkaraNi (Holy waters) and prayed to Soundararaja PerumaaL in Vaalmiki kshEtram for 48 days. This he did and was cured of his curse and regained his former self.

This Valmiki kshetram is none other than ANBIL, the birthplace of Sage Vaalmiki and one of the 108 Divya DEsams consecrated by Tirumazhisai Azhwar. The PushkaraNI is known as Mandooka PushkaraNi. (Authority: Tiruvarangam TirukkOyil (pages 73-74) of the official publication of Sri Ranganatha Swami Devastaanam, Srirangam) (Incidentally, this is one of the many glories of ANBIL, ANBIL is situated 5 miles east of Lalgudi, in Tiruchy District, Tamil Nadu)

A3 Prokshana manthram

We are familiar with the PrOkshaNa mantram, Om Bhoo: Bhuva: and Suvaha. The Mantra drishTa of the fourth Vyaahriti Suvah. Is none other than this Kutsa Rishi. The Veda Vakhya in Taittriya Samhita 2.6.5 attests this fact thus:

BrahmavaadinO vadantyatbhir haveemshi proukshee: kenaapa iti brahmaNEti brooyaat adbirhyEva haveemshi prOkshati brahmaNaapa: This occurs in the Yaaga prakaraNam in the Vedas as an answer to the question:

With what do you purify the offerings (havis) – By sprinkling water

A4. Kutsa mistaken for Indra by Indrani herself

Rig Veda 4.16.10 mentions a conversation between Sage VaamadEva and Indra which illustrates how Kutsa and Indra were not only bosom friends but also were look-alikes so much that at one stage IndraNi herself could not differentiate between them. She had to ascertain from the horses mouth of Indra himself!

It would appear that at the request of Kutsa who was the son of one Rajarishi called Ruru, Indra helped in decimating Rurus enemies and invited Kutsa to Indraloka to celebrate the victory. It was then that the above incident happened.

There is a Sooktam in Rik Veda 1.106.6 that consists of 7 mantras. Though Kutsa discovered this Sooktam, he took pride in calling it in conjunction with his Achaarya, Aaangirasa as Kutsa: Aangeerasa:

A5 Kalidasa and Kutsa

Kaalidaasa commences the 5th Sargam of his Raghuvamsa with an invocation to Kutsa. it was due to the blessings of Sage Koutsa that fame of Raghu Vamsa was firmly established.

2. SHOUNAKA GOTHRAM

Shaunaka is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. It is especially the name of a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, author of the rig veda-Pr�tiś�khya, the Brihad-devat�, the Caraṇa-vyūha and other works. He is claimed as the teacher of Katyayana and especially of Ashvalayana, and is said to have united the Bashkala and Shakala Shakhas of the Rigveda. In legend, he is sometimes identified with Gritsamada, a Vedic Rishi. According to the Vishnu Purana, Shaunaka was the son of Gritsamada, and invented the system of the four levels of human life.

B1 Shounaka and Mahabharata

Shaunaka had a prominent role in the epic MahÄbhÄrata. The epic MahÄbhÄrata was narrated to Shaunaka by a story teller named Ugrasrava Sauti during a conclave of sages headed by Shaunaka in a forest named Naimisha.

Sounaka, who learned all the PuraaNas from the renowned Sootha PouraaNikar and publicized them to the world.

Name of Kutsa is found mentioned in the Vedas in about 40 to 50 contexts shows how the greatness of this Rishi is recognized in the Vedas.

5.C PARASARA GOTHRA

ParÄsÅara is a Rigveda MahÄrishi and author of many ancient Indian texts. ParÄsÅ›ara was the grandson of Vasishtha, the son of Shakti-muni, and the father of Vyasa.

There are several texts, which give reference to ParÄsÅ›ara as the author/speaker. Modern scholars believe that there were many individuals who used this name throughout time. Hindus believe that the same ParÄ�Å›ara taught these various texts and the time of writing them varied. The actual sage himself never wrote the texts, he was known as a traveling teacher, and the various texts attributed to him are given in reference to ParÄsÅ›ara being the speaker to his student. I being a learner of astrology refer to Parasara Hora sasthra

C1 Parasara- sathya vathi- Mahabharata

Brahma created Vasishtha and with Arundhati had a son named Shakti-muni who had ParÄsÅ›ara. With Satyavati, ParÄsÅ›ara had Vyasa. Vyasa had Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura through his dead brother’s wives. Thus ParÄsÅ›ara was the great-grandfather of both the warring parties of the MahÄbhÄrata, the Kauravas and the PÄndavas.

He was present also during the time of Bhisma’s death

C2- Parasara was brought up by Vasistha

ParÄsÅara was raised by his grandfather, Vasishtha, because he lost his father at an early age. His father, Shakti-muni, was on a journey and came across an angry Rakshasa (demon) who had once been a king but was turned into a demon feeding on human flesh as a curse from Vishwamitra. The demon devoured ParÄsÅ’s father. In the Vishnu Purana, ParÄsÅ›ara speaks about his anger from this. Infact vasistha wanted to leave the world on grief¦

C3 Texts attributed to sage ParÄsÅsara

Author of verses in the Rigveda: recorded as the author of RV 1.65-73 and part of RV 9.97.

ParÄsÅara Smriti (also called ParÄsÅ›ara Dharma Samhita): a code of laws, which is stated in the text to be for the present Kali Yuga.

Speaker of Vishnu Purana considered by scholars as one of the earliest Puranas. [4]

speaker of the Brihat ParÄsÅara HorÄÅ SÄstra , also written as BPHS. It is considered a foundational text of astrology. The Sanskrit in which it is composed dates to the 7th or 8th centuries CE 
Speaker of the Vrksayurveda (“the science of life of trees”), one of the earliest texts on botany.[1].

This text was considered to be an ancient botany primer for students of Traditional Indian Medicine.

Mahamuni parasara, Husband of Satyavati and the father of Vyasadeva. Maitreya was Mahamuni Parasara’s diciple, so Vyasa and Maitreya were very close friends.

He was spiritual master of Maharaja Janaka and a great devotee of Lord Siva. He is the author of many Vedic scriptures and sociological directions.

We may be recollecting the verse-Parasaratmaka m vanthaee sukathathum thaponidhim in Vishnu sahasranam.

C4. Parasaramasmrithi- some interesting points

He also manifested to the people living in the Kali Yuga his blessings in the scripture called Parasar Smriti. Smriti created by sage Parashar and known by his name as ‘Parashar Smriti is the most benevolent for the modern Kali Yuga. Parashar has himself said:KRITE TU MANAVO DHARMASTRETAYAAM GAUTAMO SMRITAH ||
DWAPARE SHANKHALIKHITAA KALAU PARASHARAH SMRITAH ||
Meaning- Manu Smriti was most relevant in Satya Yuga. In Treta, Smriti created by Gautam had most relevance whereas in Dwapar, Shankh’s Smriti was mostly recognized. But in Kali Yuga, it is Parashar Smriti that by and large shows the way to the ignorant people.

Sage Parashar was the father of Vedvyasa. In the first chapter of this great treatise, Maharshi Vedvyasa requests his father to create such an ideologically and morally sufficient discipline that will help the people in Kali Yuga to overcome their woes.

SARVADHARMOHA KRITE JATAH SARVE NASHTAH KALAU YUGE ||
CHAATURVARNYAM SAMAACHAARAM KINCHIT SAADHAARANAM VAD ||

Meaning- All these religions were created in Satya Yuga and would be destroyed in Kali Yuga. Hence, kindly outline some ordinary religious norms so that all the four classes could run their lives in a religious way.
Sage Parashar too was fully aware of the attenuation that religion would suffer in future on the basis of his deep knowledge, that great sage contemplated on the problems which he thought would imminently afflict the religion in Kali Yuga. Change is the only thing that remains constant in nature. Religion is also no exception to this rule.

In twelve chapters, Parashar Smriti preaches its whole moral discourses. Conduct and expiation are the main subjects of contemplation here.

C4.1.How to treat a Beggar appearing while sraadha is performed

If a beggar arrives when a Brahmin household is offering sacrifices for the solace of his deceased ancestors, the Brahmin must divide the cereals in two parts and should reserve one to make offerings and donate the other as alms to the beggar.

VAISHWADEVKRITAM PAAPAM SHAKTO BHIKSHURVYAPOHITUM ||
NA HI BHIKSHUKRITANDOSHAA NVAISHVADEVO VYAPOHATI ||

Meaning- The sin committed unknowingly while offering sacrifices to the dead ancestors is done away with by the beggar. But, a crime committed against a beggar at such a moment is never done away with by the offering of sacrifices to the dead ancestors.

C.4.2 Offering Sacrifices to the dead ancestors:

Offering sacrifices to the dead ancestors is one of the five great Yagyas. During this ritual, a Brahmin should make offerings to the sacred fire. Then, he should use the remaining cereals to offer to the dead ancestors and also to the animals and birds. If a Brahmin does not perform this ritual, he is bound to suffer severe torments in hell and take reincarnation as a crow.

C.4.3 Norms for Dining:

A Brahmin should dedicate his food to God first. Then he should take it as a pious giving of God. While dining, a Brahmin should not cover his head, should not face the south and should not put his hand on the left leg. These are all deeds characteristic of demons.

C.4.4 DUTIES OF A WOMAN

Regarding the duties of a woman, sage Parashar says that a woman, who doesn’t serve even her disabled husband faithfully, turns the family into a hell.

DARIDRAM VYAADHITAM MURKHAM ||
BHARTAARAM YAA NA MANYATE ||
SAA MRITAA JAYAATE VYAALI ||
VAIDHAVYANCHA PUNAH PUNAH ||

Meaning- A woman, who does  not regard her poor, diseased or ignorant husband, becomes a serpent after her death and faces widowhood again and again.

After her monthly periods, a woman must crave for intercourse only in the company of her husband.

RHITUSNAATAA TU YAA NAARI BHARTAARAM NOPASARPATI ||
SAA MRITAA NARKAM YAATI VIDHWAA CHA PUNAH PUNAH ||

Meaning- A woman, who does not dedicate herself after her periods to her husband, goes to hell after her death and faces widowhood in subsequent births.

C.4.5.DUTIES OF A HUSBAND

A husband, who does not accept the desire of his wife of having intercourse after her periods, commits a crime equal to killing an unborn child.

Sage Parashar asserts that, killing an unborn child is more severe sin than killing a Brahmin.

A sweet relation between the spouses is the key to a successful social life. Hence, they should help each other with dedication at the times of emergency. Husband should also respect his wife and behave accordingly even if she is a disabled person.

C.4.6 illegal relations

The tenth chapter describes the expiation required to wash the sins of having illegal carnal relations with women other than the wife. Sage Parashar, it seems, had known that it would be a characterizing feature of Kali Yuga. Hence, he says

AGAMYAA GAMANE CHAIV SHUDDHAU CHAANDRAYANAAM CHARET ||

Meaning- A man who has relations with other women than his wife, can get purified only by observing Chandrayan Vrata (a fast devoted to the moon).

Those Brahmins, who have illegal carnal relations with the women of low caste must observe a fast for three days and three nights continuously. Then, he must get shaven of his head hair including the normal tuft of hair left otherwise. And ultimately, he should observe to Prajapatya Vrata.

C.4.7 Nightmares:

According to Parashar Smriti, nightmares are akin to the sins and require proper expiation by taking a bath.

DUHSWAPNAM YADI PASHYEDWA VANTE VAA KSHURKARMANI ||
MATHUNEY PRETADHUME CHA SNANAMEV VIDHIYATE ||

Meaning- If one has a nightmare in which he sees himself vomiting, getting shaven, having intercourse or sees smokes rising above a cremation ground, one should get purified by taking proper bath. Taking a proper bath, ill effects of a nightmare are removed.

C5. Parasara and Tirupuram kundram- Saravana Poikai

The six sons of sage Parasara were cursed to become fishes in the Saravana Poigai. On request for redemption, these six boys were ordered to pray to Lord Subrahmanya.

When they got his darsan, they could get redemption. It was also made known to them that Lord Subrahmanya would come to Tirupparankunram after vanquishing the demon Surapadma. Anxiously they waited for the arrival of Subrahmanya.

When the mission of Subrahmanya to vanquish Surapadma was over at Tiruchendur, on his way, he came to this spot followed by all the devas and heavenly beings whom he had released from the untold miseries caused by Surapadma.

On his arrival at Tirupparankunram, the sons of Parasara received Subrahmanya and, at their request, he consented to stay there. He at once ordered Viswakarma to construct a beautiful abode for himself, for the devas and for others.

He also suggested to the heavenly architect to build roads and erect a city around them.

C6. Parasa- Limping sage

ParÄsÅara was known as the “limping sage”. He had his leg wounded during the attack of his ashram.

Section VII

 1. Srivatsa Gothra 2. Vatsa Gothram 3. Kausika Gothram 4. Shadamarshna Gotra & Naithrupa Kasyapa Gothram.



The famous “Dasagothrams” (ten Gothrams) are : Aathreya, Bharathwaja, Gauthama, Jaamadagnya, Kaasyapa, Kaundinya, Kausika, Vaasishta, Vaatsa & Vishwaamitra. 

In Dwadasa gothrams the following additional gothras, apart from Dasa gothrams are told. These are: Agasthia, Aangirasa, Gargi, Haritha, Kanva, Kutsa, Moudgalya, Naithruva Kasyapa, Parasara, Sandilya, Sankrithi, Shadarmarshna, Srivatsa & Vaadula.We have already covered from the list of 48 gothras 32 already. The remaining are 16 including the not covered itemsfrom the dasa gothras and dwadasa gothras. 

The not covered Gothras from the list of dasa gothras and dwadasa gothras are the following:- a. Sri vatsa  and b. vatsa Gothram c..Kousika Gothram  d.. shadamasrana e. Naidrupa kasyapa gothram. In this section 7, these gothras are covered. 

3A.Sreevatsa Gothra



In the south a number of Brahmin families belong to Sree vatsa Gothra. Including me too. In fact I started the write up trying to know about sage Srivatsa. I could get very few references about sage Srivatsa. 

The Vedas reiterate the supremacy of Lord Narayana who protects the entire creation. The names and adjectives used to refer and describe Him further corroborate His omnipotent nature. 

Once when the sages were discussing among themselves as to who was the protector of the entire manifestation, it was Sage Srivatsa who pointed out that it was Lord Narayana who sustained the entire creation and related the instance of His incarnation as Varaha (boar) to protect Mother Earth. 

The lineage for Srivatsa Gothra is from sage Brighu and Valmiki.  The pravara has 5 rishies Bhargava, chyavana, aplavana, aurva, Jamadagniya. We have covered Bhargava gothram and Jamadagni gothram too. 

Correctly pronounced shri vatsa bhArgava, chAyvana, Apnav

TRS Iyengar

TRS Iyengar

Born on Makara Uthiradam star, native of Mukkur and brought up in Ladavaram village near Arcot and now well settled in Mumbai for over five decades. Presently, at 70, trying to run this website without any commercial expectations or profit motive, just for the sake of our future generations to understand about Sanatana Dharma & Srivaishnavam sampradayam.Within my limited knowledge that I put it here, what I learnt from the world.

Leave a Comment